Citrine is the yellow to orange variety of Quartz. Natural Citrine is not common; most Citrine on the gem market is produced by heat treating Amethyst and Smoky Quartz. It takes a relatively low temperature to change the color light to golden yellow, and heating to higher temperatures will give the stone a darker yellow to brownish-red color. The name Citrine is derived from the citron fruit, a yellow fruit similar to the lemon. (In fact, citron means "lemon" in several languages.) Most heat treated Citrine takes on a deep orange or slightly reddish tint. In general, the deeper colored stones are the most valuable, including those with reddish tints. Lightly colored yellow Citrine can occur naturally but is rare; the intense yellow form is usually irradiated and given the trade name of "Lemon Quartz". Citrine is a very affordable gemstone, and all its color ranges are not expensive. It is most often confused with orange-yellow Topaz, which is very similar in color and body. Topaz is the more valuable gemstone, and dealers often sell Citrine labeled as Topaz. Several false trade names for Citrine are "Madeira Topaz", "Gold Topaz", and "Bahia Topaz". However, some fine and rare Citrine gemstones have a pure yellow color that is rarely duplicated by golden Topaz. Citrine can be found in large crystals, and flawless gems of all sizes have been cut. A natural mixture of purple Amethyst and golden Citrine has been coined with name "Ametrine". (See the Ametrine gemstone page for more details.) Citrine is cut into all different types of gems, especially oval and rectangular cuts. It is a very popular pendant stone as flawless stones of many carats are not uncommon. It is used as a centerpiece for rings, and also for earrings, bracelets, and necklaces. Lesser quality Citrine combined with white Quartz is also tumbled and used as beads for necklaces and bracelets.
- Golden Citrine - Citrine with a golden yellow color.
- Lemon Quartz - Lemon Quartz is a light to dark yellow Citrine, distinguished from most Citrine by lacking orange, brown, or reddish tints. More often though it is clear Quartz that is irradiated to produce an intensely colored yellow gemstone. Lemon Quartz has recently experienced a popularity increase in the gemstone market.
- Madeira Citrine - Brownish-red to orange-red Citrine.
- Palmeria Citrine - Citrine with a bright orange color.
- Yellow Citrine - Citrine with a lemon yellow color. May also be called "Lemon Citrine" or "Lemon Quartz".
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